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Hierarchical Prompt Learning for Multi-Task Learning

Yajing Liu · Yuning Lu · Hao Liu · Yaozu An · Zhuoran Xu · Zhuokun Yao · Baofeng Zhang · Zhiwei Xiong · Chenguang Gui

West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 253


Vision-language models (VLMs) can effectively transfer to various vision tasks via prompt learning. Real-world scenarios often require adapting a model to multiple similar yet distinct tasks. Existing methods focus on learning a specific prompt for each task, limiting the ability to exploit potentially shared information from other tasks. Naively training a task-shared prompt using a combination of all tasks ignores fine-grained task correlations. Significant discrepancies across tasks could cause negative transferring. Considering this, we present Hierarchical Prompt (HiPro) learning, a simple and effective method for jointly adapting a pre-trained VLM to multiple downstream tasks. Our method quantifies inter-task affinity and subsequently constructs a hierarchical task tree. Task-shared prompts learned by internal nodes explore the information within the corresponding task group, while task-individual prompts learned by leaf nodes obtain fine-grained information targeted at each task. The combination of hierarchical prompts provides high-quality content of different granularity. We evaluate HiPro on four multi-task learning datasets. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

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