Neuroimage processing tasks like segmentation, reconstruction, and registration are central to the study of neuroscience. Robust deep learning strategies and architectures used to solve these tasks are often similar. Yet, when presented with a new task or a dataset with different visual characteristics, practitioners most often need to train a new model, or fine-tune an existing one. This is a time-consuming process that poses a substantial barrier for the thousands of neuroscientists and clinical researchers who often lack the resources or machine-learning expertise to train deep learning models. In practice, this leads to a lack of adoption of deep learning, and neuroscience tools being dominated by classical frameworks. We introduce Neuralizer, a single model that generalizes to previously unseen neuroimaging tasks and modalities without the need for re-training or fine-tuning. Tasks do not have to be known a priori, and generalization happens in a single forward pass during inference. The model can solve processing tasks across multiple image modalities, acquisition methods, and datasets, and generalize to tasks and modalities it has not been trained on. Our experiments on coronal slices show that when few annotated subjects are available, our multi-task network outperforms task-specific baselines without training on the task.