This paper proposes a practical method of microscale 3D shape capturing by a teleidoscopic imaging system. The main challenge in microscale 3D shape reconstruction is to capture the target from multiple viewpoints with a large enough depth-of-field. Our idea is to employ a teleidoscopic measurement system consisting of three planar mirrors and monocentric lens. The planar mirrors virtually define multiple viewpoints by multiple reflections, and the monocentric lens realizes a high magnification with less blurry and surround view even in closeup imaging. Our contributions include, a structured ray-pixel camera model which handles refractive and reflective projection rays efficiently, analytical evaluations of depth of field of our teleidoscopic imaging system, and a practical calibration algorithm of the teleidoscppic imaging system. Evaluations with real images prove the concept of our measurement system.