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Equiangular Basis Vectors

Yang Shen · Xuhao Sun · Xiu-Shen Wei

West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 336


We propose Equiangular Basis Vectors~(EBVs) for classification tasks. In deep neural networks, models usually end with a k-way fully connected layer with softmax to handle different classification tasks. The learning objective of these methods can be summarized as mapping the learned feature representations to the samples’ label space. While in metric learning approaches, the main objective is to learn a transformation function that maps training data points from the original space to a new space where similar points are closer while dissimilar points become farther apart. Different from previous methods, our EBVs generate normalized vector embeddings as “predefined classifiers” which are required to not only be with the equal status between each other, but also be as orthogonal as possible. By minimizing the spherical distance of the embedding of an input between its categorical EBV in training, the predictions can be obtained by identifying the categorical EBV with the smallest distance during inference. Various experiments on the ImageNet-1K dataset and other downstream tasks demonstrate that our method outperforms the general fully connected classifier while it does not introduce huge additional computation compared with classical metric learning methods. Our EBVs won the first place in the 2022 DIGIX Global AI Challenge, and our code is open-source and available at

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