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Towards Benchmarking and Assessing Visual Naturalness of Physical World Adversarial Attacks

Simin Li · Shuning Zhang · Gujun Chen · Dong Wang · Pu Feng · Jiakai Wang · Aishan Liu · Xin Yi · Xianglong Liu

West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 391


Physical world adversarial attack is a highly practical and threatening attack, which fools real world deep learning systems by generating conspicuous and maliciously crafted real world artifacts. In physical world attacks, evaluating naturalness is highly emphasized since human can easily detect and remove unnatural attacks. However, current studies evaluate naturalness in a case-by-case fashion, which suffers from errors, bias and inconsistencies. In this paper, we take the first step to benchmark and assess visual naturalness of physical world attacks, taking autonomous driving scenario as the first attempt. First, to benchmark attack naturalness, we contribute the first Physical Attack Naturalness (PAN) dataset with human rating and gaze. PAN verifies several insights for the first time: naturalness is (disparately) affected by contextual features (i.e., environmental and semantic variations) and correlates with behavioral feature (i.e., gaze signal). Second, to automatically assess attack naturalness that aligns with human ratings, we further introduce Dual Prior Alignment (DPA) network, which aims to embed human knowledge into model reasoning process. Specifically, DPA imitates human reasoning in naturalness assessment by rating prior alignment and mimics human gaze behavior by attentive prior alignment. We hope our work fosters researches to improve and automatically assess naturalness of physical world attacks. Our code and exemplar data can be found at

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