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Open-Vocabulary Attention Maps with Token Optimization for Semantic Segmentation in Diffusion Models

Pablo Marcos-Manchón · Roberto Alcover-Couso · Juan SanMiguel · Jose M. Martinez

Arch 4A-E Poster #431
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Wed 19 Jun 5 p.m. PDT — 6:30 p.m. PDT


Diffusion models represent a new paradigm in text-to-image generation. Beyond generating high-quality images from text prompts, models such as Stable Diffusion have been successfully extended to the joint generation of semantic segmentation pseudo-masks. However, current extensions primarily rely on extracting attentions linked to prompt words used for image synthesis. This approach limits the generation of segmentation masks derived from word tokens not contained in the text prompt. In this work, we introduce Open-Vocabulary Attention Maps (OVAM)—a training-free method for text-to-image diffusion models that enables the generation of attention maps for any word. In addition, we propose a lightweight optimization process based on OVAM for finding tokens that generate accurate attention maps for an object class with a single annotation. We evaluate these tokens within existing state-of-the-art Stable Diffusion extensions. The best-performing model improves its mIoU from 52.1 to 86.6 for the synthetic images' pseudo-masks, demonstrating that our optimized tokens are an efficient way to improve the performance of existing methods without architectural changes or retraining.

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