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Each Test Image Deserves A Specific Prompt: Continual Test-Time Adaptation for 2D Medical Image Segmentation

Ziyang Chen · Yongsheng Pan · Yiwen Ye · Mengkang Lu · Yong Xia

Arch 4A-E Poster #148
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Thu 20 Jun 10:30 a.m. PDT — noon PDT


Distribution shift widely exists in medical images acquired from different medical centres and poses a significant obstacle to deploying the pre-trained semantic segmentation model in real-world applications. Test-time adaptation has proven its effectiveness in tackling the cross-domain distribution shift during inference. However, most existing methods achieve adaptation by updating the pre-trained models, rendering them susceptible to error accumulation and catastrophic forgetting when encountering a series of distribution shifts (i.e., under the continual test-time adaptation setup). To overcome these challenges caused by updating the models, in this paper, we freeze the pre-trained model and propose the Visual Prompt-based Test-Time Adaptation (VPTTA) method to train a specific prompt for each test image to align the statistics in the batch normalization layers. Specifically, we present the low-frequency prompt, which is lightweight with only a few parameters and can be effectively trained in a single iteration. To enhance prompt initialization, we equip VPTTA with a memory bank to benefit the current prompt from previous ones. Additionally, we design a warm-up mechanism, which mixes source and target statistics to construct warm-up statistics, thereby facilitating the training process. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our VPTTA over other state-of-the-art methods on two medical image segmentation benchmark tasks. The code and weights of pre-trained source models are available at

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