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What How and When Should Object Detectors Update in Continually Changing Test Domains?

Jayeon Yoo · Dongkwan Lee · Inseop Chung · Donghyun Kim · Nojun Kwak

Arch 4A-E Poster #372
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Fri 21 Jun 10:30 a.m. PDT — noon PDT

Abstract: It is a well-known fact that the performance of deep learning models deteriorates when they encounter a distribution shift at test-time. Test-Time Adaptation (TTA) algorithms have been proposed to adapt the model online while inferring test data. However, existing research predominantly focuses on classification tasks through the optimization of batch normalization layers or classification heads, but this approach limits its applicability to various model architectures like Transformers and makes it challenging to be applied to other tasks, such as object detection. In this paper, we propose a novel online adaption approach for object detection in continually changing test domains, considering which part of the model to update, how to update it, and when to perform the update. By introducing architecture-agnostic and light-weight adaptor modules and only updating these while leaving the pre-trained backbone unchanged, we can rapidly adapt to new test domains in an efficient way and prevent catastrophic forgetting. Furthermore, we present a practical and straightforward class-wise feature aligning method for object detection to resolve domain shifts. Additionally, we enhace efficiency by determining when the model is sufficiently adapted or when additional adaptation is needed due to changes in the test distribution. Our approach surpasses baselines on widely used benchmarks, achieving improvements of up to 4.9 and 7.9 in mAP for COCO $\rightarrow$ COCO-corrupted and SHIFT, respectively, while maintaining about 20 FPS or higher.

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