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DiG-IN: Diffusion Guidance for Investigating Networks - Uncovering Classifier Differences Neuron Visualisations and Visual Counterfactual Explanations

Maximilian Augustin · Yannic Neuhaus · Matthias Hein

Arch 4A-E Poster #140
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Thu 20 Jun 10:30 a.m. PDT — noon PDT


While deep learning has led to huge progress in complex image classification tasks like ImageNet, unexpected failure modes, e.g. via spurious features, call into question how reliably these classifiers work in the wild. Furthermore, for safety-critical tasks the black-box nature of their decisions is problematic, and explanations or at least methods which make decisions plausible are needed urgently. In this paper, we address these problems by generating images that optimize a classifier-derived objective using a framework for guided image generation. We analyze the behavior and decisions of image classifiers by visual counterfactual explanations (VCEs), detection of systematic mistakes by analyzing images where classifiers maximally disagree, and visualization of neurons to verify potential spurious features. In this way, we validate existing observations, e.g. the shape bias of adversarially robust models, as well as novel failure modes, e.g. systematic errors of zero-shot CLIP classifiers, or identify harmful spurious features. Moreover, our VCEs outperform previous work while being more versatile.

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