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MedBN: Robust Test-Time Adaptation against Malicious Test Samples

Hyejin Park · Jeongyeon Hwang · Sunung Mun · Sangdon Park · Jungseul Ok

Arch 4A-E Poster #115
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Wed 19 Jun 5 p.m. PDT — 6:30 p.m. PDT


Test-time adaptation (TTA) has emerged as a promising solution to address performance decay due to unforeseen distribution shifts between training and test data. While recent TTA methods excel in adapting to test data variations, such adaptability exposes a model to vulnerability against malicious examples, an aspect that has received limited attention. Previous studies have uncovered security vulnerabilities within TTA even when a small proportion of the test batch is maliciously manipulated. In response to the emerging threat, we propose median batch normalization (MedBN), leveraging the robustness of the median for statistics estimation within the batch normalization layer during test-time inference. Our method is algorithm-agnostic, thus allowing seamless integration with existing TTA frameworks. Our experimental results on benchmark datasets, including CIFAR10-C, CIFAR100-C and ImageNet-C, consistently demonstrate that MedBN outperforms existing approaches in maintaining robust performance across different attack scenarios, encompassing both instant and cumulative attacks. Through extensive experiments, we show that our approach sustains the performance even in the absence of attacks, achieving a practical balance between robustness and performance.

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