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ImageNet-D: Benchmarking Neural Network Robustness on Diffusion Synthetic Object

Chenshuang Zhang · Fei Pan · Junmo Kim · In So Kweon · Chengzhi Mao

Arch 4A-E Poster #214
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Fri 21 Jun 10:30 a.m. PDT — noon PDT


We establish rigorous benchmarks for visual perception robustness. Synthetic images such as ImageNet-C, ImageNet-9, and Stylized ImageNet provide specific type of evaluation over synthetic corruptions, backgrounds, and textures, yet those robustness benchmarks are restricted in specified variations and have low synthetic quality. In this work, we introduce generative model as a data source for synthesizing hard images that benchmark deep models' robustness. Leveraging diffusion models, we are able to generate images with more diversified backgrounds, textures, and materials than any prior work, where we term this benchmark as ImageNet-D. Experimental results show that ImageNet-D results in a significant accuracy drop to a range of vision models, from the standard ResNet visual classifier to the latest foundation models like CLIP and MiniGPT-4, significantly reducing their accuracy by up to 60\%. Our work suggests that diffusion models can be an effective source to test vision models. The code and dataset are available at

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