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TokenHMR: Advancing Human Mesh Recovery with a Tokenized Pose Representation

Sai Kumar Dwivedi · Yu Sun · Priyanka Patel · Yao Feng · Michael J. Black

Arch 4A-E Poster #113
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Wed 19 Jun 10:30 a.m. PDT — noon PDT


We address the problem of regressing 3D human pose and shape from a single image, with a focus on 3D accuracy. The current best methods leverage large datasets of 3D pseudo-ground-truth (p-GT) and 2D keypoints, leading to robust performance. With such methods, however, we observe a paradoxical decline in 3D pose accuracy with increasing 2D accuracy. This is caused by biases in the p-GT and the use of an approximate camera projection model. We quantify the error induced by current camera models and show that fitting 2D keypoints and p-GT accurately causes incorrect 3D poses. Our analysis defines the invalid distances within which minimizing 2D and p-GT losses is detrimental. We use this to formulate a new loss, “Threshold-Adaptive Loss Scaling” (TALS), that penalizes gross 2D and p-GT errors but not smaller ones. With such a loss, there are many 3D poses that could equally explain the 2D evidence. To reduce this ambiguity we need a prior over valid human poses but such priors can introduce unwanted bias. To address this, we exploit a tokenized representation of human pose and reformulate the problem as token prediction. This restricts the estimated poses to the space of valid poses, effectively improving robustness to occlusion. Extensive experiments on the EMDB and 3DPW datasets show that our reformulated loss and tokenization allows us to train on in-the-wild data while improving 3D accuracy over the state-of-the-art. Our models and code are available for research at

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