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OPERA: Alleviating Hallucination in Multi-Modal Large Language Models via Over-Trust Penalty and Retrospection-Allocation

Qidong Huang · Xiaoyi Dong · Pan Zhang · Bin Wang · Conghui He · Jiaqi Wang · Dahua Lin · Weiming Zhang · Nenghai Yu

Arch 4A-E Poster #364
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Thu 20 Jun 10:30 a.m. PDT — noon PDT

Abstract: Hallucination, posed as a pervasive challenge of multi-modal large language models (MLLMs), has significantly impeded their real-world usage that demands precise judgment. Existing methods mitigate this issue with either training with specific designed data or inferencing with external knowledge from other sources, incurring inevitable additional costs. In this paper, we present $\textbf{OPERA}$, a novel MLLM decoding method grounded in an $\textbf{O}$ver-trust $\textbf{Pe}$nalty and a $\textbf{R}$etrospection-$\textbf{A}$llocation strategy, serving as a nearly $\textbf{free lunch}$ to alleviate the hallucination issue without additional data, knowledge, or training. Our approach begins with an interesting observation that, most hallucinations are closely tied to the knowledge aggregation patterns manifested in the self-attention matrix, i.e., MLLMs tend to generate new tokens by focusing on a few summary tokens, but not all the previous tokens. Such partial over-trust inclination results in the neglecting of image tokens and describes the image content with hallucination. Based on the observation, OPERA introduces a penalty term on the model logits during the beam-search decoding to mitigate the over-trust issue, along with a rollback strategy that retrospects the presence of summary tokens in the previously generated tokens, and re-allocate the token selection if necessary. With extensive experiments, OPERA shows significant hallucination-mitigating performance on different MLLMs and metrics, proving its effectiveness and generality. Our code is at:

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