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Lookahead Diffusion Probabilistic Models for Refining Mean Estimation

Guoqiang Zhang · Kenta Niwa · W. Bastiaan Kleijn

West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 135


We propose lookahead diffusion probabilistic models (LA-DPMs) to exploit the correlation in the outputs of the deep neural networks (DNNs) over subsequent timesteps in diffusion probabilistic models (DPMs) to refine the mean estimation of the conditional Gaussian distributions in the backward process. A typical DPM first obtains an estimate of the original data sample x by feeding the most recent state zi and index i into the DNN model and then computes the mean vector of the conditional Gaussian distribution for z{i-1}. We propose to calculate a more accurate estimate for x by performing extrapolation on the two estimates of x that are obtained by feeding (z{i+1}, i+1) and (zi, i) into the DNN model. The extrapolation can be easily integrated into the backward process of existing DPMs by introducing an additional connection over two consecutive timesteps, and fine-tuning is not required. Extensive experiments showed that plugging in the additional connection into DDPM, DDIM, DEIS, S-PNDM, and high-order DPM-Solvers leads to a significant performance gain in terms of Fr├ęchet inception distance (FID) score. Our implementation is available at

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