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Guiding Pseudo-Labels With Uncertainty Estimation for Source-Free Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Mattia Litrico · Alessio Del Bue · Pietro Morerio

West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 336


Standard Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) methods assume the availability of both source and target data during the adaptation. In this work, we investigate Source-free Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (SF-UDA), a specific case of UDA where a model is adapted to a target domain without access to source data. We propose a novel approach for the SF-UDA setting based on a loss reweighting strategy that brings robustness against the noise that inevitably affects the pseudo-labels. The classification loss is reweighted based on the reliability of the pseudo-labels that is measured by estimating their uncertainty. Guided by such reweighting strategy, the pseudo-labels are progressively refined by aggregating knowledge from neighbouring samples. Furthermore, a self-supervised contrastive framework is leveraged as a target space regulariser to enhance such knowledge aggregation. A novel negative pairs exclusion strategy is proposed to identify and exclude negative pairs made of samples sharing the same class, even in presence of some noise in the pseudo-labels. Our method outperforms previous methods on three major benchmarks by a large margin. We set the new SF-UDA state-of-the-art on VisDA-C and DomainNet with a performance gain of +1.8% on both benchmarks and on PACS with +12.3% in the single-source setting and +6.6% in multi-target adaptation. Additional analyses demonstrate that the proposed approach is robust to the noise, which results in significantly more accurate pseudo-labels compared to state-of-the-art approaches.

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