BlackVIP: Black-Box Visual Prompting for Robust Transfer Learning

Changdae Oh · Hyeji Hwang · Hee-young Lee · YongTaek Lim · Geunyoung Jung · Jiyoung Jung · Hosik Choi · Kyungwoo Song

West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 346


With the surge of large-scale pre-trained models (PTMs), fine-tuning these models to numerous downstream tasks becomes a crucial problem. Consequently, parameter efficient transfer learning (PETL) of large models has grasped huge attention. While recent PETL methods showcase impressive performance, they rely on optimistic assumptions: 1) the entire parameter set of a PTM is available, and 2) a sufficiently large memory capacity for the fine-tuning is equipped. However, in most real-world applications, PTMs are served as a black-box API or proprietary software without explicit parameter accessibility. Besides, it is hard to meet a large memory requirement for modern PTMs. In this work, we propose black-box visual prompting (BlackVIP), which efficiently adapts the PTMs without knowledge about model architectures and parameters. BlackVIP has two components; 1) Coordinator and 2) simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation with gradient correction (SPSA-GC). The Coordinator designs input-dependent image-shaped visual prompts, which improves few-shot adaptation and robustness on distribution/location shift. SPSA-GC efficiently estimates the gradient of a target model to update Coordinator. Extensive experiments on 16 datasets demonstrate that BlackVIP enables robust adaptation to diverse domains without accessing PTMs’ parameters, with minimal memory requirements. Code:

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