Animal pose estimation is an important but under-explored task due to the lack of labeled data. In this paper, we tackle the task of animal pose estimation with scarce annotations, where only a small set of labeled data and unlabeled images are available. At the core of the solution to this problem setting is the use of the unlabeled data to compensate for the lack of well-labeled animal pose data. To this end, we propose the ScarceNet, a pseudo label-based approach to generate artificial labels for the unlabeled images. The pseudo labels, which are generated with a model trained with the small set of labeled images, are generally noisy and can hurt the performance when directly used for training. To solve this problem, we first use a small-loss trick to select reliable pseudo labels. Although effective, the selection process is improvident since numerous high-loss samples are left unused. We further propose to identify reusable samples from the high-loss samples based on an agreement check. Pseudo labels are re-generated to provide supervision for those reusable samples. Lastly, we introduce a student-teacher framework to enforce a consistency constraint since there are still samples that are neither reliable nor reusable. By combining the reliable pseudo label selection with the reusable sample re-labeling and the consistency constraint, we can make full use of the unlabeled data. We evaluate our approach on the challenging AP-10K dataset, where our approach outperforms existing semi-supervised approaches by a large margin. We also test on the TigDog dataset, where our approach can achieve better performance than domain adaptation based approaches when only very few annotations are available. Our code is available at the project website.