Recently, indiscernible scene understanding has attracted a lot of attention in the vision community. We further advance the frontier of this field by systematically studying a new challenge named indiscernible object counting (IOC), the goal of which is to count objects that are blended with respect to their surroundings. Due to a lack of appropriate IOC datasets, we present a large-scale dataset IOCfish5K which contains a total of 5,637 high-resolution images and 659,024 annotated center points. Our dataset consists of a large number of indiscernible objects (mainly fish) in underwater scenes, making the annotation process all the more challenging. IOCfish5K is superior to existing datasets with indiscernible scenes because of its larger scale, higher image resolutions, more annotations, and denser scenes. All these aspects make it the most challenging dataset for IOC so far, supporting progress in this area. For benchmarking purposes, we select 14 mainstream methods for object counting and carefully evaluate them on IOCfish5K. Furthermore, we propose IOCFormer, a new strong baseline that combines density and regression branches in a unified framework and can effectively tackle object counting under concealed scenes. Experiments show that IOCFormer achieves state-of-the-art scores on IOCfish5K.