Despite the progress in semantic image synthesis, it remains a challenging problem to generate photo-realistic parts from input semantic map. Integrating part segmentation map can undoubtedly benefit image synthesis, but is bothersome and inconvenient to be provided by users. To improve part synthesis, this paper presents to infer Parts from Object ShapE (iPOSE) and leverage it for improving semantic image synthesis. However, albeit several part segmentation datasets are available, part annotations are still not provided for many object categories in semantic image synthesis. To circumvent it, we resort to few-shot regime to learn a PartNet for predicting the object part map with the guidance of pre-defined support part maps. PartNet can be readily generalized to handle a new object category when a small number (e.g., 3) of support part maps for this category are provided. Furthermore, part semantic modulation is presented to incorporate both inferred part map and semantic map for image synthesis. Experiments show that our iPOSE not only generates objects with rich part details, but also enables to control the image synthesis flexibly. And our iPOSE performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Our code will be publicly available at https://github.com/csyxwei/iPOSE.