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Devil Is in the Queries: Advancing Mask Transformers for Real-World Medical Image Segmentation and Out-of-Distribution Localization

Mingze Yuan · Yingda Xia · Hexin Dong · Zifan Chen · Jiawen Yao · Mingyan Qiu · Ke Yan · Xiaoli Yin · Yu Shi · Xin Chen · Zaiyi Liu · Bin Dong · Jingren Zhou · Le Lu · Ling Zhang · Li Zhang

West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 313
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Real-world medical image segmentation has tremendous long-tailed complexity of objects, among which tail conditions correlate with relatively rare diseases and are clinically significant. A trustworthy medical AI algorithm should demonstrate its effectiveness on tail conditions to avoid clinically dangerous damage in these out-of-distribution (OOD) cases. In this paper, we adopt the concept of object queries in Mask transformers to formulate semantic segmentation as a soft cluster assignment. The queries fit the feature-level cluster centers of inliers during training. Therefore, when performing inference on a medical image in real-world scenarios, the similarity between pixels and the queries detects and localizes OOD regions. We term this OOD localization as MaxQuery. Furthermore, the foregrounds of real-world medical images, whether OOD objects or inliers, are lesions. The difference between them is obviously less than that between the foreground and background, resulting in the object queries may focus redundantly on the background. Thus, we propose a query-distribution (QD) loss to enforce clear boundaries between segmentation targets and other regions at the query level, improving the inlier segmentation and OOD indication. Our proposed framework is tested on two real-world segmentation tasks, i.e., segmentation of pancreatic and liver tumors, outperforming previous leading algorithms by an average of 7.39% on AUROC, 14.69% on AUPR, and 13.79% on FPR95 for OOD localization. On the other hand, our framework improves the performance of inlier segmentation by an average of 5.27% DSC compared with nnUNet.

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