We present Generative Semantic Segmentation (GSS), a generative learning approach for semantic segmentation. Uniquely, we cast semantic segmentation as an image-conditioned mask generation problem. This is achieved by replacing the conventional per-pixel discriminative learning with a latent prior learning process. Specifically, we model the variational posterior distribution of latent variables given the segmentation mask. To that end, the segmentation mask is expressed with a special type of image (dubbed as maskige). This posterior distribution allows to generate segmentation masks unconditionally. To achieve semantic segmentation on a given image, we further introduce a conditioning network. It is optimized by minimizing the divergence between the posterior distribution of maskige (i.e., segmentation masks) and the latent prior distribution of input training images. Extensive experiments on standard benchmarks show that our GSS can perform competitively to prior art alternatives in the standard semantic segmentation setting, whilst achieving a new state of the art in the more challenging cross-domain setting.